Referenser och källor

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1. Övergripande referenser och källor

 

Clinical Arrhythmology and Electrophysiology: A Companion to Braunwald’s Heart Disease
Zipes D et al
Elsevier 2013

Gå till denna referens

 

Comprehensive Electrocardiology
Macfarlane, P.W.; Oosterom, A. van; Pahlm, O.; Kligfield, P.; Janse, M.; Camm, J. (red)
Springer 2010

Gå till denna referens

 

Marriott’s Practical Electrocardiography
Galen S. Wagner
Elsevier 2007

Gå till denna referens

 

Chou’s Electrocardiography in Clinical Practice
Borys Surawicz & Timothy Knilans
Elsevier 2008

Gå till denna referens

 

Clinical Electrocardiography: A Simplified Approach
Ary L. Goldberger
Elsevier Mosby 2006

Gå till denna referens

 

Braunwald’s Heart Disease

Peter Libby, Robert O. Bonow, Douglas L. Mann

W.B Saunders Company 2007

Gå till denna referens

 

Elektrokardiologi
Olle Pahlm; Leif Sörnmo
Studentlitteratur 2006

Gå till denna referens

 

KLINISK FYSIOLOGI
Sidan 151 – 215, kapitel av O. Pahlm. Redaktörer Jonson & Wollmer.
Liber 2005

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Klinisk EKG-diagnostik
Sverker Jern
Medical Book Company 2010

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Akut kranskärlssjukdom

Lars Wallentin, Bertil Lindahl (red)

Liber 2010

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Referenser till enskilda kapitel

Här följer en noggrann källhänvisning

Kapitel 1: Introduktion

 

Comprehensive Electrocardiology
Macfarlane, P.W.; Oosterom, A. van; Pahlm, O.; Kligfield, P.; Janse, M.; Camm, J. (red)
Springer 2010
Källa till: Retledningssystemets komponenter. Vektorteorin. EKG-kurvans vågor. EKG-avledningar.

 

Marriott’s Practical Electrocardiography                                                                       
Galen S. Wagner
Elsevier 2007
Källa till: Retledningssystemet. EKG-kurvans vågor. Hjärtats vektorer. ST-T-förändringar. Elektrisk axel.

 

Chou’s Electrocardiography in Clinical Practice
Borys Surawicz & Timothy Knilans
Elsevier 2008
Källa till: ST-T-förändringar. Normalvärden och normalvarianter för EKG-vågor. QT- och QTc-tid samt U-våg. EKG-avledningar.

 

Clinical Electrocardiography: A Simplified Approach
Ary L. Goldberger
Elsevier Mosby 2006
Källa till: Differentialdiagnoser vid EKG-förändringar. EKG-kurvans vågor. Retledningssystemet. Elektrisk axel.

 

Elektrokardiologi
Olle Pahlm
Studentlitteratur 2006
Källa till: Avledningslära, inkl kapitlet om alternativa avledningar och avledningssystem.

 

KLINISK FYSIOLOGI
Sidan 151 – 215, kapitel av Olle Pahlm
Liber 2005
Källa till: Avledningslära. EKG-kurvans vågor. Definitioner av normala och patologiska vågor. Elektrisk axel.

 

Klinisk EKG-diagnostik
Sverker Jern & Héléne Jern
Medical Book Company 2010
Källa till: Elektrofysiologi.

 

 

Originalpublikationer

  • Kligfield P et al: Recommendations for the standardization and interpretation of the electrocardiogram: part I: The electrocardiogram and its technology. Circulation 2007.
  • Wagner et al: Recommendations for the Standardization and Interpretation of the Electrocardiogram. Part VI: Acute Ischemia/Infarction: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association Electrocardiography and Arrhythmias Committee, Council on Clinical Cardiology; the American College of Cardiology Foundation; and the Heart Rhythm Society: Endorsed by the International Society for Computerized Electrocardiology. Circulation 2009.
  • Rautaharju et al: Recommendations for the Standardization and Interpretation of the Electrocardiogram. Part IV: The ST Segment, T and U Waves, and the QT Interval A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association Electrocardiography and Arrhythmias Committee, Council on Clinical Cardiology; the American College of Cardiology Foundation; and the Heart Rhythm Society. JACC 2009.
  • Hancock et al: AHA/ACCF/HRS recommendations for the standardization and interpretation of the electrocardiogram: part V: electrocardiogram changes associated with cardiac chamber hypertrophy: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Electrocardiography and Arrhythmias Committee, Council on Clinical Cardiology; the American College of Cardiology Foundation; and the Heart Rhythm Society. JACC 2009.
  • Surawicz et al: Recommendations for the Standardization and Interpretation of the Electrocardiogram : Part III: Intraventricular Conduction Disturbances: A ScientificStatement From the American Heart Association Electrocardiography and ArrhythmiasCommittee, Council on Clinical Cardiology; the American College of Cardiology Foundation; and the Heart Rhythm Society. Circulation 2009.
  • Bacharova et al: Where is the central terminal located? In search of understanding the use of the Wilson central terminal for production of 9 of the standard 12 electrocardiogram leads. Journal of Electrocardiology 2005.
  • Wilson et al: Relations between the potential variations of the ventricular surfaces and the form of the ventricular electrocardiogram in leads from the precordium and the extremities. Trans. Assoc. Am. Physicians, 1941
  • Wilson et al: The precordial electrocardiogram. Am. Heart J, 1944
  • Wilson et al: The vectorcardiogram. Am. Heart J., 1938
  • Sgarbossa et al: Twelve-lead electrocardiogram: The advantages of an orderly frontal lead display including lead –aVR. Journal of Electrocardiology 2004.
  • Oupadia et al: Images in clinical medicine. ”R-on-T” phenomenon. NEJM 1998; 338 (25): 1812.
  • Chou et al: The importance of R on T phenomenon. Am Heart J. 1978 Aug;96(2):191-4.
  • Dajie et al: An improved method for adjusting the QT interval for heart rate (the Framingham Heart Study). Am J Cardiol, 1992.
  • Rautaharju P et al: Linearly scaled, rate-invariant normal limits for QT interval: eight decades of incorrect application of power functions. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol, 2002.
  • Luo et al: A comparison of commonly used QT correction formulae: the effect of heart rate on the QTc of normal ECGs. J Electrocardiol, 2004
  • De Bruyne et al: Prolonged QT interval predicts cardiac and all-cause mortality in the elderly: the Rotterdam Study. EHJ 1999
  • Rautaharju PM et al: Normal standards for QT and QT subintervals derived from a large ethnically diverse population of women aged 50 to 79 years (The Women’s Health Initiative [WHI]). Am J Cardiol, 2006

 

Kapitel 2: Arytmier

 

Clinical Arrhythmology and Electrophysiology: A Companion to Braunwald’s Heart Disease
Zipes D et al
Elsevier 2013
Källa till: Arytmimekanismer. Supraventrikulära och ventrikulära extraslag. LQTS.

 

Comprehensive Electrocardiology
Macfarlane, P.W.; Oosterom, A. van; Pahlm, O.; Kligfield, P.; Janse, M.; Camm, J. (red)
Springer 2010
Källa till: Ventrikulära slag och rytmrubbningar. Nodala slag och rytmrubbningar. SSS. SND. SA-block. LQTS.

 

Marriott’s Practical Electrocardiography                                                                       
Galen S. Wagner
Elsevier 2007
Källa till: Arytmimekanismer. Re-entry. Supraventrikulära rytmrubbningar. Ventrikulära rytmrubbningar. AVNRT. WPW & AVRT. Tillsammans med föregående referens huvudkälla till kapitlet.

 

Chou’s Electrocardiography in Clinical Practice
Borys Surawicz & Timothy Knilans
Elsevier 2008
Källa till: SA-block.

 

Clinical Electrocardiography: A Simplified Approach
Ary L. Goldberger
Elsevier Mosby 2006
Källa till: Supraventrikulära extraslag. Ventrikulära extraslag. Ventrikulära rytmrubbningar. Supraventrikulära rytmrubbningar.

 

Kardiovaskulär medicin
Ulf Dahlström (red).
Liber 2010
Källa till: Förmaksflimmer. Förmaksfladder. WPW & AVRT. AVNRT.

 

The Alan E. Lindsay ECG Learning Center

http://library.med.utah.edu/kw/ecg/

Källa till: supraventrikulära rytmrubbningar, särskilt extraslag. Ventrikulära rytmrubbningar, särskilt extraslag.

Originalpublikationer

  • Fox et al: Heart rate: a forgotten link in coronary heart disease. Nature Reviews Cardiology, 2011.
  • Pérez-Silva A: Frequent ventricular extrasystoles: significance, prognosis and treatment.
  • Arruda et al: ECG algorithm for predicting sites of successful radiofrequency ablation of accessory pathways. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 1993;16:865
  • Chiang et al: An accurate stepwise electrocardiographic algorithm for localization of accessory pathways inp atients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome from a comprehensive analysis of delta waves and R/S ratio during sinus rhythm. Am J Cardiol 1995;76:40
  • Arruda et al: Development and validation of an ECG algorithm for identifying accessory pathway ablation site in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 9:2–12, 1998.

 

Kapitel 3: Kranskärlssjukdom

  • Rautaharju PM et al: AHA/ACCF/HRS recommendations for the standardization and interpretation of the electrocardiogram: part IV: the ST segment, T and U waves, and the QT interval. Circulation 2009.
  • Wagner GS et al: AHA/ACCF/HRS recommendations for the standardization and interpretation of the electrocardiogram: part VI: acute ischemia/infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol 2009.
  • THIRD UNIVERSAL DEFINITION OF MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. Thygesen et al. Eur Heart J 2012.
  • ESC Guidelines for MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION IN PATIENTS PRESENTING WITH PERSISTENT ST-SEGMENT ELEVATION
  • Frans Van de Werf et al. European Society of Cardiology. Eur Heart J 2008. ESC Guidelines for the management of acute coronary syndromes in patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation.
  • Libby P et al: Progress and challenges in translating the biology of atherosclerosis; Nature 2011.
  • Libby P et al: Inflammation in atherosclerosis: from pathophysiology to practice; J Am Coll Cardiol 2009.
  • GK Hansson et al: The immune system in atherosclerosis. Nat Immunol 2011.
    Johnstone E et al: Distinguishing characteristics of erythrocyte-rich and platelet-rich thrombus by intravascular ultrasound catheter system; J Thromb Thrombolysis 2007.
  • Montalescot G et al: STEMI and NSTEMI: are they so different? 1 year outcomes in acute myocardial infarction as defined by the ESC/ACC definition (the OPERA registry); Eur Heart J 2007.
  • Roe MT et al: Quality of care by classification of myocardial infarction: treatment patterns for ST- segment elevation vs. non–ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Arch Intern Med 2005.
  • Electrocardiography in ischemic heart disease: clinical and imaging correlations and prognostic implications. Blackwell Publishing; 2007.
  • Hurst JW. Interpreting electrocardiograms using basic principles and vector concepts. New York: Marcel Dekker 2001.
  • Bayes de Luna A et al: Holter ECG study of the electrocardiographic phenomena in Prinzmetal angina attacks with emphasis on the study of ventricular arrhythmias. J Electrocardiol 1985.
  • Somers MP et al: The prominent T wave: electrocardiographic differential diagnosis. Am J Emerg Med 2002.
  • Kenigsberg DN et al: Prolongation of the QTc interval is seen uniformly during early transmural ischemia. J Am Coll Cardiol 2007.
  • E Hedström et al: Infarct evolution in man studied in patients with first-time coronary occlusion in comparison to different species – implications for assessment of myocardial salvage; J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 2009.
  • Engblom H et al: The endocardial extent of reperfused first-time myocardial infarction is more predictive of pathologic Q waves than is infarct transmurality: a magnetic resonance imaging study. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging 2007.
  • Braunwald’s Heart Disease – A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 9th ed. Chapt 52, Coronary Collateral Circulation.
  • Braunwald’s Heart Disease – A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 9th ed. Chapt 52, Metabolic and functional consequences of ischemia.
  • Bøtker et al: Remote ischaemic conditioning before hospital admission, as a complement to angioplasty, and effect on myocardial salvage in patients with acute myocardial infarction: a randomised trial; Lancet 2010.
  • Björck L et al: Medication in relation to ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in patients with a first myocardial infarction; Arch Intern Med 2010
  • Mandelzweig et al: The second Euro Heart Survey on acute coronary syndromes: Characteristics, treatment, and outcome of patients with ACS in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin in 2004; Eur Heart J. 2006
  • Pichler M: Wall motion abnormalities and electrocardiographic changes in acute transmural myocardial infarction: implications of reciprocal ST segment depression. Am Heart J, 1983
  • Roubin G: Anterolateral ST segment depression in acute inferior myocardial infarction. Am Heart J, 1984
  • Haraphongse M: Inferior ST segment depression during acute anterior myocardial infarction: clinical and angiographic correlations. J Am Coll Cardiol, 1984.
  • Kornreich et al: Body surface potential mapping of ST segment changes in acute myocardial infarction: implications for ECG enrollment criteria for thrombolytic therapy, Circulation 1993.
  • Parodi  G et al: Natural history of tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy, Chest 2011.
  • Abhiram P et al: Apical ballooning syndrome (Tako-Tsubo or stress cardiomyopathy): A mimic of acute myocardial infarction.
  • JA de Lemos et al: ST-segment resolution as a tool for assessing the efficacy of reperfusion therapy; JACC 2001.
  • R Schröder: Prognostic impact of early ST-segment resolution in acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction; Circulation 2004
  • M Sejersten et al: Long-term prognostic value of ST-segment resolution in patients treated with fibrinolysis or primary percutaneous coronary intervention results from the DANAMI-2 (DANish trial in acute myocardial infarction-2); J Am Coll Cardiol 2009.
  • DJ Engelen et al: Usefulness of frequent arrhythmias after epicardial recanalization in anterior wall acute myocardial infarction as a marker of cellular injury leading to poor recovery of left ventricular function; Am J Cardiol 2003.
  • R Ilia et al: Predicting survival with reperfusion arrhythmias during primary percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction; Isr Med Assoc J 2007.
  • Bahit et al: Persistence of the pro- thrombotic state after acute coronary syndromes: implications for treatment; Am Heart J 2002.
  • Jayes et al: Do patients’ coronary risk factor reports predict acute cardiac ischemia in the emergency department? A multicenter study; J Clin Epidemiol 1992.
  • Sgarbossa EB et al: Twelve-lead electrocardiogram: the advantages of an orderly frontal lead display including -aVR; J Electrocardiology 2004
  • D’Ascenzo et al: Prevalence and non-invasive predictors of left main or three-vessel coronary disease: evidence from a collaborative international meta-analysis including 22 740 patients; Heart 2012.
  • Kosuge M et al: Predictors of left main or three- vessel disease in patients who have acute coronary syndromes with non–ST-segment elevation. Am J Cardiol 2005.
  • Barrabes JA et al: Prognostic value of lead aVR in patients with a first non–ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction. Circulation 2003.
  • Yamaji H et al: Prediction of acute left main coronary artery obstruction by 12-lead electrocardiography. ST segment elevation in lead aVR with less ST segment elevation in lead V(1). J Am Coll Cardiol 2001.
  • Engelen DJ et al: Value of the electrocardiogram in localizing the occlusion site in the left anterior descending coronary artery in acute anterior myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol 1999.
  • Sgarbossa et al: Electrocardiographic diagnosis of evolving acute myocardial infarction in the presence of left bundle-branch block; NEJM 1996
  • Sgarbossa et al: Acute myocardial infarction and complete bundle branch block at hospital admission: clinical characteristics and outcome in the thrombolytic era; JACC 1998.
  • IJ Neeland et al: Evolving Considerations in the Management of Patients With Left Bundle Branch Block and Suspected Myocardial Infarction; JACC 2012.
  • H Al-Faleh et al: Unraveling the spectrum of left bundle branch block in acute myocardial infarction: Insights from the ASSENT 2 and 3 trials; Am Heart J 2006.
  • N Mehta et al: Prevalence of acute myocardial infarction in patients with presumably new left bundle-branch bloc; J Electrocardiology 2012.
  • Shlipak et al: Should the Electrocardiogram Be Used to Guide Therapy for Patients With Left Bundle-Branch Block and Suspected Myocardial Infarction? JAMA 1999
  • Gunnarsson et al: ECG criteria in diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction in the presence of left bundle branch block. International Journal of Cardiology 2001
  • Shvilkin et al: Vectorcardiographic and electrocardiographic criteria to distinguish new and old left bundle branch block. Heart Rhythm, 2010
  • Maynard et al: Body surface mapping improves early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction in patients with chest pain and left bundle branch block; Heart 2003.
  • AM Chang et al: Lack of association between left bundle-branch block and acute myocardial infarction in symptomatic ED patients; Am J Emergency Med 2009.
  • P Widimsky et al: Primary angioplasty in acute myocardial infarction with right bundle branch block: should new onset right bundle branch block be added to future guidelines as an indication for reperfusion therapy? Eur Heart J 2012.
  • Nikus KC et al: ST-depression with negative T waves in leads V4-V5—a marker of severe coronary artery disease in non–ST elevation acute coronary syndrome: a prospective study of angina at rest, with troponin, clinical, electrocardiographic, and angiographic correlation. Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol 2004.
  • Hayden GE et al: Electrocardiographic T-wave inversion: differential diagnosis in the chest pain patient. Am J Emerg Med 2002.
  • Savonitto S et al: Prognostic value of the admission electrocardiogram in acute coronary syndromes. JAMA 1999.
  • Hyde TA et al: Four-year survival of patients with acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation and prognostic significance of 0.5-mm ST-segment depression. Am J Cardiol 1999.
  • Wehrens X et al: A comparison of electrocardiographic changes during reperfusion of acute myocardial infarction by thrombolysis or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty; Am Heart J 2000.
  • Agetsuma H et al: Transient giant negative T wave in acute anterior myocardial infarction predicts R wave recovery and preservation of left ventricular function. Heart 1996.
  • Herz I et al: The prognostic implications of negative T waves in the leads with ST segment elevation on admission in acute myocardial infarction. Cardiology 1999.
  • Doevendans PA et al: Electrocardiographic diagnosis of reperfusion during thrombolytic therapy in acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 1995.
  • de Zwaan C, Bar FW, Wellens HJ. Characteristic electrocardiographic pattern indicating a critical stenosis high in left anterior descending coronary artery in patients admitted because of impending myocardial infarction. Am Heart J 1982;103(4 Pt 2):730.
  • de Zwaan C, Bar FW, Janssen JH, et al. Angiographic and clinical characteristics of patients with unstable angina showing an ECG pattern indicating critical narrowing of the proximal LAD coronary artery. Am Heart J 1989;117:657.
  • Renkin J, Wijns W, Ladha Z, et al. Reversal of segmental hypokinesis by coronary angioplasty in patients with unstable angina, persistent T wave inversion, and left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis. additional evidence for myocardial stunning in humans. Circulation 1990;82:913.
  • Zack PM et al: Pseudonormalization of T-waves during coronary angioplasty. Cathet Cardiovasc Diagn 1987.
  • Noble RJ et al:Normalization of abnormal T waves in ischemia. Arch Intern Med 1976.
  • Gerson MC et al: Resting U wave inversion as a marker of stenosis of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Am J Med 1980.
  • Kishida H et al: Negative U wave: a highly specific but poorly understood sign of heart disease. Am J Cardiol 1982.
  • Atie J et al: Clinical presentation and prognosis of left main coronary artery disease in the 1980s. Eur Heart J 1991.
  • Bayés de Luna A et al: Clinical electrocardiography: a textbook. Armonk, NY, USA: Futura Publishing Company, Inc.; 1998.
  • KC Nikus et al: Electrocardiographic classification of acute coronary syndromes: a review by a committee of the International Society for Holter and Non-Invasive Electrocardiology. J Electrocardiology 2010.
  • Das et al: Significance of a fragmented QRS complex versus a Q wave in patients with coronary artery disease; Circulation 2006.
  • Das et al: FragmentedQRS on a 12-lead ECG: A predictor of mortality and cardiac events in patients with coronary artery disease; Heart Rhythm 2007.
  • Das et al: Role of the Fragmented QRS Complexes on a Routine 12-lead ECG in Predicting Mortality and Sudden Cardiac Death; Rev Argent Cardiol 2010.

 

Kapitel 4: Retledningshinder

 

Clinical Arrhythmology and Electrophysiology: A Companion to Braunwald’s Heart Disease
Zipes D et al
Elsevier 2013
Källa till: AV-block och intraventrikulära retledningshinder.

 

Comprehensive Electrocardiology
Macfarlane, P.W.; Oosterom, A. van; Pahlm, O.; Kligfield, P.; Janse, M.; Camm, J. (red)
Springer 2010
Källa till: AV-block och vektorförändringar vid intranventrikulära retledningshinder. Fascikelblock.

 

Chou’s Electrocardiography in Clinical Practice

Borys Surawicz & Timothy Knilans
Elsevier 2008
Källa till: AV-block I – III. SA-block. Figur 1 i kapitel 1 (översikt hjärtat och retledningssystemet).

 

Kapitel 5: Övrigt

  • Johan Hulting et al: Akut Internmedicin (Janusinfo).
  • http://www.internetmedicin.se/dyn_main.asp?page=121
  • Apical ballooning syndrome or takotsubo cardiomyopathy: a systematic review. Gianni et al. Eur Heart J (2006) 27 (13): 1523-1529
  • Priori et al: xecutive summary: HRS/EHRA/APHRS expert consensus statement on the diagnosis and management of patients with inherited primary arrhythmia syndromes.
  • Brugada Syndrome: Report of the Second Consensus Conference. Antzelevitch C, Brugada P, Borggrefe M, Brugada J, Brugada R, Corrado D, Gussak I, LeMarec H et al. Circulation. 2005; 111: 659-670
  • Electrocardiographic manifestations: electrolyte abnormalities. Diercks DB, Shumaik GM, Harrigan RA, Brady WJ, Chan TC. J Emerg Med 2004; 27 (2): 153-60.
  • The Early Repolarization Pattern: A Consensus Paper. MacFarlane et al. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015;66(4):470-477

 

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